Saeed Khatibzadeh, a spokesman for Iran`s foreign ministry, called the deal „deep, complex and healthy“ the day before it was signed. Iran has a similar project partnership with India and Russia, the so-called International North-South Transport Corridor.  There are also likely developments in Pakistan`s involvement. Iran and Pakistan have had friendly relations with China in the past. The benefits of the Belt and Road Initiative have the potential to outweigh political and religious differences.  The liberalization of trade between Iran and Pakistan through railways and ports could open up development potential in both countries. There would also be a stronger united front to put pressure on Afghanistan to do the same.  This potential deal would also reduce India`s pressure on Pakistan and China.  The 25-year Iran-China deal, which made headlines last month, is far from new. It was first announced in 2016 during a state visit by President Xi Jinping to Tehran, at a time when sanctions against Iran were lifted as part of the 2015 nuclear deal. Chinese and Iranian officials have since worked out the details of the deal in a slow process of consultation and negotiation. Zarif said the deal would be submitted to parliament for final approval.
He has the support of Iran`s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, two Iranian officials said. 20. The two sides welcome the agreement reached between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the P5+1 countries on the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and consider that the agreement contributes to ensuring the peace of Iran`s nuclear activities and leads to the full realization of Iran`s legitimate rights to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy under the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The two sides stress that all relevant parties should implement the JCPOA and UN Security Council Resolution 2231 in good faith and in an inclusive and balanced manner, and reaffirm their efforts to advance the process of modernizing the Arak heavy water reactor. DUBAI (Reuters) – China and Iran, both subject to U.S. sanctions, signed a 25-year cooperation agreement on Saturday to strengthen their longstanding economic and political alliance. In other words, there may be fewer than it seems, at least in its current form. Bill Figueroa, a researcher specializing in Sino-Iranian relations, argued in a Twitter feed that the deal was „not a big deal.“ Instead, it is a „desirable document“ that „offers no method of implementation, measurable objectives or specific programs.“ On the defense side in particular, the specific areas of cooperation are „all the things that already exist,“ he noted, and are far within the norm of China`s engagement with other regional powers. Wang met with President Hassan Rouhani in Tehran before the signing. The deal was to include Chinese investment in sectors such as energy and infrastructure. „The United States will continue to impose costs on Chinese companies that help Iran, the world`s largest state sponsor of terrorism,“ a State Department spokeswoman wrote in response to questions about the draft deal. The Chinese also view Iran as a country that is nevertheless largely outside of regional economic and security alliances.
This is a problem that Beijing seems to promise to help solve through projects like the BRI. The recent announcement of a $400 billion strategic deal over 25 years between Tehran and Beijing must be seen in this context.  saudigazette.com.sa/saudi-arabia/saudi-arabia-china-sign-security-cooperation-pact/ The proposed partnership has nevertheless sparked a lively debate in Iran. Zarif, the foreign minister who travelled to Beijing last October to negotiate the deal, was questioned in a hostile manner in parliament last week. It was the first time Iran had signed such a long deal with a major world power. In 2001, Iran and Russia signed a 10-year cooperation agreement, mainly in the nuclear field, which was extended to 20 years by two five-year extensions. The Biden administration seems to understand that its reorientation to the Pacific will have global implications, as evidenced by the current tensions with France. But so far, it does not appear to have a grand strategy to pursue common diplomatic interests with China while subdividing bilateral tensions.
Iran is an interesting example of how the United States has accomplished such a task with Russia. If the US could create a similar trick with China on Iranian issues, it could extend to other issues like climate. Otherwise, it could prove extremely difficult for the US to achieve a return to the JCPOA, let alone the „longer and stronger“ agreement the government has set itself as a goal.  www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2016/07/iran-shanghai-cooperation-organization-sco-accession.html As in Tehran`s ongoing talks with the Russians, Iran should weigh in on the idea of giving the Chinese military access to its air and naval facilities. It should also be remembered that Iran and China are now almost united on some key issues in the Middle East, including support for the regime of Bashar al-Assad in Syria. The plans – nearly 100 cited in the draft treaty – are in line with Xi`s ambitions to extend his economic and strategic influence to all of Eurasia through the Belt and Road Initiative, a major aid and investment program. The Agreement between China and Iran is the first time Iran has reached such a deal with a major world power – the last was a 10-year deal with Russia, which was later extended to 20 years. At a time when the United States is wavering about recession and coronavirus and is increasingly isolated internationally, Beijing is feeling America`s weakness. The draft Iran deal shows that, unlike most countries, China feels capable of challenging the United States, which is powerful enough to withstand U.S.
sanctions, as was the case in President Trump`s trade war. At the invitation of His Excellency Mr. Hassan Rouhani, President of the Islamic Republic of Iran, His Excellency Mr. Xi Jinping, President of the People`s Republic of China, paid an official visit to the Islamic Republic of Iran from January 22 to 23, 2016. In a friendly and cordial atmosphere, the two Heads of State and Government exchanged views on cooperation in all areas of bilateral relations as well as on regional and international issues of mutual interest, thus concluding broad agreements. The 25-year Iran-China Cooperation Program or Comprehensive Strategic Partnership between the Republic of Iran and the People`s Republic of China is a 25-year cooperation agreement on the further development of Iran-China relations, which was signed on September 27. Was signed by the Foreign Ministers of China and Iran in Tehran in March 2021; the final details of the deal have not yet been officially announced. According to a 25-year draft agreement (signed in Beijing on June 24, 2020), which was previously available to the New York Times, China must invest $400 billion in the Iranian economy during this period, in exchange for a regular and sharply reduced supply of oil from Iran.    The main details of the deal were initially reported by British journalist and author Simon Watkins in an article published in Petroleum Economist on September 3, 2019, which states that the deal includes up to $280 billion for the development of Iran`s oil, gas and petrochemical sectors and another $120 billion investment in modernizing Iran`s transportation and production infrastructure.   According to the Iranian authorities, the revival of China`s One Belt One Road initiative is also part of the agreement.  China also has serious concerns about Iranian proliferation, but it is fortunate to be a stowaway in global efforts to reduce Iran.
China expresses all the good feelings about the desire for a negotiated solution to the differences, but at the same time, it is pursuing its own agreements with Iran and relying on its overwhelming advantage, which is due not only to the relative size of the economies of the two countries, but also to Iran`s isolation from the world. China accounts for about a third of Iran`s trade, and Iran accounts for less than 1% of China`s trade. China`s economy is 30 times larger than Iran`s and its population is 18 times larger. China is an elephant and Iran is an ant. Although China views Iranian proliferation as undesirable, it does not feel threatened by Iran. Instead, China views Iran as a useful tool to use in its foreign policy by calibrating its distance and proximity to Iran to some extent in order to get closer to or further away from the US and its allies. .