Pangkor Agreement

„.. the work of the meeting could not begin until 16 January. By this time, Sir Andrew and Lady Clarke and their companions had arrived at Pangkor on Pluto. The meeting began with ceremonial visits from the chiefs to the governor aboard the ship. Of the four main contenders for the post of sultan, only Mantri and Abdullah were present. Ismail later claimed to have received his invitation too late, while Yusuf was not even invited, although he had written to Singapore in February 1869 to declare his claim to the throne. Among the small chiefs present, the majority represented or supported the rulers of Lower Perak. The representatives of Upper Perak were surprisingly absent, and all had personal reasons not to mention Raja Yusof`s claim. Deliberations began at 3:3.m.m 0 p.m. with an interview between Clarke and the Mantris, alone. Haji Mahomed Said had, of course, been Swettenham`s Malay teacher in Singapore.

This was translated by Swettenham, who confirmed the accuracy of his own translation. It was then countersigned by McNair in terms of veracity. With his help, Clarke was able to decide that Abdullah had a much better claim than Ismail, because Yusuf`s case was ignored. There is little doubt that Clarke was now aware of Mantri`s claim and decided to ignore it, directly reversing the policies of his predecessor. On the afternoon of January 17, a plenary session of the chiefs was held. The Mantri, who was no doubt aware that his position had been greatly weakened by Clarke`s reversal of Ord`s policy of recognition, was persuaded to participate only with difficulty. Swettenham and Pickering had failed in their attempts to bring him in. Pickering was sent a second time with twenty soldiers, which ensured the immediate presence of the Mantri, as well as Speedy and two other smaller leaders. The Mantri who asked for a chair was rejected. Clarke was furious at the request, and McNair took him by the waist and forced him to sit on deck with all the other Malay participants.

This was a clear indication, if any, of Clarke`s refusal to acknowledge his important position among the Perak chiefs. Given that everyone present was on board a British ship surrounded by British soldiers, it is hardly surprising that there were no dissenting voices to Clarke`s proposal to crown Abdullah Sultan. In fact, the Bendahara was surprised at his mind when he was on the boat in Pangkor. As January 18 is a Sunday, the conditions for Pangkor`s engagement were not met until Monday, January 19. January, elaborated, discussed this afternoon and signed on Tuesday 20 afternoon. There is no authorized Malay version of the text, and there is little doubt that the undertaking was originally written in English and translated into Malay for the benefit of the chiefs. There is some controversy over the Malay text. The absent Ismail also received a letter informing him of his statement and asking him to hand over the official insignia: in the given circumstances, a surprisingly self-glorifying piece of colonial tactlessness.

Finally, Dunlop, Swettenham and Pickering were appointed commissioners to settle compensation issues and resolve all disputes. With regard to British interests, Article 6 effectively transferred all powers to the resident, which read as follows: „That the Sultan obtain and provide suitable residence to a British officer called resident, who shall be accredited to his court and whose advice shall be sought and executed on all matters, which do not concern Malay religion and customs. ` However, no executive power was given to the resident; this should be a source of a lot of problems later. .