President Franklin D. Roosevelt attempted to expand the Court in 1937. His proposal provided for the appointment of an additional judge for each sitting judge who reached the age of 70 and 6 months and refused retirement, up to a maximum of 15 judges. At the lowest level, each state would have a federal judge to preside over the district courts that hear smaller cases related to federal laws as well as maritime cases. These districts were then organized into three geographical regions with district courts that served as both courts of first instance and heard appeals. The Supreme Court consists of nine justices: the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices. Judges are appointed by the President and confirmed with the „advice and consent“ of the United States Senate in accordance with Article II of the United States Constitution. As federal judges, judges serve during „good conduct,“ meaning judges have a lifespan unless they are removed by impeachment and subsequent conviction.  State rights advocates, such as constitutional scholar Kevin Gutzman, also criticized the court, saying it abused the Fourteenth Amendment to undermine state authority. Judge Brandeis argued in favor of allowing states to operate without federal interference, suggesting that states should be laboratories of democracy.  One critic wrote, „The vast majority of the Supreme Court`s unconstitutional decisions concern state law, not federal law.“  Others view the Fourteenth Amendment as a positive force that „extends the protection of these rights and guarantees at the state level.“  More recently, the issue of federal power is at the heart of gamble v.
United States, which examines the doctrine of „separate sovereigns,“ according to which a criminal can be prosecuted by a state court and then by a federal court.   The President of the United States has the exclusive power to appoint Supreme Court judges when there are vacancies for the Court, and any appointment must be confirmed by the United States Senate. George Washington made 11 court appointments, while Franklin Roosevelt made the second most appointments, nine. Only three presidents outside of Andrew Johnson have made no appointments: William Henry Harrison (died in 1841, one month after his inauguration), Zachary Taylor (died in 1850, 16 months after taking office) and Jimmy Carter. To date, the Presidents have submitted 160 nominations, including appointments to the position of Chief Justice. Of these, 124 were confirmed, with seven of them choosing not to accept the position. The 10th President of the United States, John Tyler, who took office after the death of William Henry Harrison, made nine appointments while in office from 1841 to 1845, but Tyler, politically unpopular, managed to get only one of those appointments confirmed by the Senate. Introduced by Article Three of the United States Constitution, the composition and procedures of the Supreme Court were originally established by the 1st Congress by the Judiciary Act of 1789.
As later established by the Judiciary Act of 1869, the Court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices. Each judge has a lifetime mandate, which means he or she remains in court until he or she dies, retires, resigns or is removed from office.  In the event of a vacancy, the President shall appoint a new judge with the Council and the consent of the Senate. Each judge has a single voice to rule on cases heard before the Court. At the age of majority, the Chief Justice decides who drafts the Court`s opinion; Otherwise, the judge most senior in the majority assigns the task of drafting the opinion. Associate Justice William O. Douglas served 36 years and 7 months on the bench, from April 1939 to November 1975, the longest term of a judge in the history of the court. Douglas` successor, John Paul Stevens, served on the court from December 1975 to June 2010, making him the third longest-serving judge. (Steven Johnson Field, who served from 1863 to 1897, came in second.) Although appointed for life, more than 50 have decided to retire or resign; That number included John Jay, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Charles Evan Hughes, Earl Warren, Thurgood Marshall, Sandra Day O`Connor, and Anthony Kennedy. Only one judge was indicted: Samuel Chase in 1804. The U.S.
House of Representatives voted to impeach Chase, a outspoken figure accused of acting biased in various court cases; However, the U.S. Senate acquitted him in 1805 and he remained on the bench, where he had served from 1796 until his death in 1811. Because Section Three of the U.S. Constitution provides that federal courts can only deal with „cases“ or „controversies,“ the Supreme Court cannot rule on contentious cases and does not provide advice as the supreme courts of some states can. For example, in DeFunis v. Odegaard, 416 U.S. 312 (1974), the court dismissed a lawsuit challenging the constitutionality of a law school affirmative action policy because the student plaintiff had graduated from the beginning of the lawsuit and a court decision on his lawsuit would not be able to compensate for harm he had suffered. However, the Court recognises certain circumstances in which it is appropriate to hear a case which appears to be at issue. If a question „is reproducible but escapes consideration,“ the court will deal with it, even if the part itself would not be healed by a favorable outcome in court.
In Roe v. Wade, 410 USA 113 (1973) and other abortion cases, the Court considers the merits of claims made by pregnant women seeking abortion even when they are no longer pregnant because it takes longer than the typical human gestation period to challenge a case in the lower courts of the Supreme Court […].